Th Blu ray disc was released in 2006 and these are the improvements in hardware it has compared to the DVD. Blu ray's maximum resolution is 1080p while DVD is limited to 480p. This means that you will see more of a detailed image, and see things clearer as well as the sound quality being improved. Blu ray is the highest quality video format available on the market. A Blu ray disc can hold up to 50GB of information while a DVD can only hold 8GB, This is good for Blu ray because it can fit more things onto one disc. Blu ray also has special features such as "BD-Live" this allows the user to connect to the internet and access extra content for the Blu ray such as additional deleted scenes, outtakes, trailers.Also with a DVD there is a short pause when the disc reader will switch from the first layer to the second, on Blu ray this short pause does not occur.The only downside to Blu ray is that it costs slightly more than a DVD but some people would prefer to watch in the film in a better quality and pay a little extra. This has affected institutions and audiences because more people would buy a Blu ray home cinema set and watch the movies at home because the quality of the picture and sound would be better, than going to the cinema.
Another improvement to hardware is movie streaming. This is where the user can stream movies from any device that can connect to the internet. For example, a gaming console is now compatible with Netflix a movie streaming website so that the user can watch films on their games console.
This affects the institutions and audiences because people would find it easier to watch films at home than traveling to the cinema.The film makers will not be losing out on money because they would sell the movie to a streaming site or a movie channel such as Sky Movies, this is a synergy and convergence between Sky Movies and Film Makers. In some cases this would boost the sales for both the film makers and Sky movies, for example After earth was released on sky movies before it came out on Blu ray or DVD, so this would encourage people to watch it on Sky Movies.
Due to more people watching films at home and not watching them at the cinema, the affect cinemas was that they were forced to converge with orange and do special deals, for example Orange Wednesdays. This is great for both company's as it is a good promotional tool, the cinema could show Orange adverts before the film.
In conclusion the improvements in hardware and content are affecting institutions and audiences to watch films in their homes rather than go to the cinema.